November 9th, 1918. The war was lost. Allied troops were standing on the borders and the people were starving.. The Kaiser abdicated to the Netherlands and Germany was in disarray. Wilhelm did not arrange a line of succession so his son, also called Wilhelm, did not ascend to the German or Prussian throne. Germany became a deb facto Republic in February 1919 with the creation of the role of President. Friederich Ebert became the first of two . The first administrative assembly met in Weimar, a city in the German state of Thuringia. This national assembly wrote a new constitution which was formally adapted on August 11th, 1919. this new republic faced a wide range of challenges in restoring stability. Reaction to the Treaty of Versailles, unemployment and food shortages, challenges from extremist groups on the left and right, reparations and hyperinflation.

When studying the Weimar Replublic there are three fundamental questions one needs to ask

1. Why did Weimar Germany struggle to establish itself between 1919 and 1923?

2. Hy was there a “Golden Period” from 1923 to 1929?

3. Why did Weimar Germany fail leading to its collapse in 1933?